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Elasticity of Demand and its Types

  • Ritesh Pathak
  • Jan 16, 2021
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Elasticity is a concept in economics that talks about the effect of change in one economic variable on the other.  

 

Elasticity of Demand, on the other hand, specifically measures the effect of change in an economic variable on the quantity demanded of a product. There are several factors that affect the quantity demanded for a product such as the income levels of people, price of the product, price of other products in the segment, and various others. 

 

Let’s begin our blog with a definition of Elasticity of Demand and then we will explore the different types of Elasticity of Demand. 

 

Also, read our blog on 4 types of Elasticity in economics

 

 

Elasticity of Demand

 

Elasticity of Demand, or Demand Elasticity, is the measure of change in quantity demanded of a product in response to a change in any of the market variables, like price, income etc. It measures the shift in demand when other economic factors change. 

 

In other words, the elasticity of demand is the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in another economic variable

 

The demand for a commodity is affected by different economic variables: 

 

  1. Price of the commodity

  2. Price of related commodities 

  3. Income level of consumers

 

We will read about these in detail, later in the blog. 


 

“The elasticity (or responsiveness) of demand in a market is great or small according as the amount demanded increases much or little for a given fall in price, and diminishes much or little for a given rise in price”. 

Alfred Marshall, British Economist

 

 

3 Types of Elasticity of Demand

 

On the basis of different factors affecting the quantity demanded for a product, elasticity of demand is categorized into mainly three categories: Price Elasticity of Demand (PED), Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED), and Income Elasticity of Demand (YED)

 

Let us look at them in detail and their examples.

 

 

1. Price Elasticity of Demand (PED)

 

Any change in the price of a commodity, whether it’s a decrease or increase, affects the quantity demanded for a product. For example, when there is a rise in the prices of ceiling fans, the quantity demanded goes down.  

 

This measure of responsiveness of quantity demanded when there is a change in price is termed as the Price Elasticity of Demand (PED).

 

The mathematical formula given to calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand is: 


 

  PED = % Change in Quantity Demanded % / Change in Price

 

The result obtained from this formula determines the intensity of the effect of price change on the quantity demanded for a commodity. 

 

 

2. Income Elasticity of Demand (YED)

 

The income levels of consumers play an important role in the quantity demanded for a product. This can be understood by looking at the difference in goods sold in the rural markets versus the goods sold in metro cities. 

 

The Income Elasticity of Demand, also represented by YED, refers to the sensitivity of quantity demanded for a certain good to a change in real income (the income earned by an individual after accounting for inflation) of the consumers who buy this good, keeping all other things constant. 

 

Speaking of inflation, you can also take a look at our blog on what is inflation.

 

The formula given to calculate the Income Elasticity of Demand is given as:

 

YED = % Change in Quantity Demanded% / Change in Income 

 

The result obtained from this formula helps to determine whether a good is a necessity good or a luxury good. 

 

 

3. Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED)

 

In a market where there is an oligopoly, multiple players compete. Thus, the quantity demanded for a product does not only depend on itself but rather, there is an effect even when prices of other goods change. 

 

Cross Elasticity of Demand, also represented as XED, is an economic concept that measures the sensitiveness of quantity demanded of one good (X) when there is a change in the price of another good (Y), and that’s why it is also referred to as Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand. 

 

The formula given to calculate the Cross Elasticity of Demand is given as: 

 

XED = (% Change in Quantity Demanded for one good (X)%) / (Change in Price of another Good (Y))

 

The result obtained for a substitute good would always come out to be positive as whenever there is a rise in the price of a good, the demand for its substitute rises. Whereas, the result will be negative for a complementary good. 

 

These three types of Elasticity of Demand measure the sensitivity of quantity demanded to a change in the price of the good, income of consumers buying the good, and the price of another good. 

 

Apart from these three types, we have some other types of Elasticity of Demand which we would look at now. 

 

Also, take a sneak peek at our blog on 5 key elements of financial analysis

 

 

5 other types of Elasticity of Demand

 

The effect of change in economic variables is not always the same on the quantity demanded for a product. 

 

The demand for a product can be elastic, inelastic, or unitary, depending on the rate of change in the demand with respect to the change in the price of a product. 

 

On the basis of the amount of fluctuation shown in the quantity demanded of a good, it is termed as ‘elastic’, ‘inelastic’, and ‘unitary’.

 

  • An elastic demand is one that shows a larger fluctuation in the quantity demanded of a product, in response to even a little change in another economic variable. For example, if there is a hike of $0.5 in the price of a cup of coffee, there are very high chances of a steep decline in the quantity demanded. 

 

  • An inelastic demand is one that shows a very little fluctuation in the quantity demanded with respect to a change in another economic variable. An example of this can be petrol or diesel. 

 

  • Unitary elasticity is one in which the fluctuation in one variable and quantity demanded is equal.


 

We can further classify these elastic and inelastic types of demand into five categories.


Demand curves for perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic, and unitary elastic demand.

Demand Curves


 

 

1. Perfectly Elastic Demand

 

When there is a sharp rise or fall due to a change in the price of the commodity, it is said to be perfectly elastic demand. 

 

In perfectly elastic demand, even a small rise in price can result in a fall in demand of the good to zero, whereas a small decline in the price can increase the demand to infinity. 

 

However, perfectly elastic demand is a total theoretical concept and doesn’t find a real application, unless the market is perfectly competitive and the product is homogenous. 

 

The degree of elasticity of demand helps to define the slope and shape of the demand curve. Therefore, we can determine the elasticity of demand by looking at the slope of the demand curve. 

 

A Flatter curve will represent a higher elastic demand. Thus, the slope of the demand curve for a perfectly elastic demand is horizontal.

 

 

2. Perfectly Inelastic Demand

 

A perfectly inelastic demand is the one in which there is no change measured against a price change. 

 

Like perfectly elastic demand, the concept of perfectly inelastic is also a theoretical concept and doesn’t find a practical application. However, the demand for necessity goods can be the closest example of perfectly inelastic demand. 

 

The numerical value obtained from the PED formula comes out as zero for a perfectly inelastic demand. 

 

The demand curve for a perfectly inelastic demand is a vertical line i.e. the slope of the curve is zero. 


 

 

3. Relatively Elastic Demand

 

Relatively elastic demand refers to the demand when the proportionate change in the demand is greater than the proportionate change in the price of the good. The numerical value of relatively elastic demand ranges between one to infinity. 

 

In relatively elastic demand, if the price of a good increases by 25% then the demand for the product will necessarily fall by more than 25%.

 

Unlike the aforementioned types of demand, relatively elastic demand has a practical application as many goods respond in the same manner when there is a price change. 

 

The demand curve of relatively elastic demand is gradually sloping. 


The image shows the demand curves for relatively elastic demand and relatively inelastic demand.

Demand Curves


4. Relatively Inelastic Demand

 

In a relatively inelastic demand, the proportionate change in the quantity demanded for a product is always less than the proportionate change in the price. 

 

For example, if the price of a good goes down by 10%, the proportionate change in its demand will not go beyond 9.9..%, if it reaches 10% then it would be called unitary elastic demand. 

 

The numerical value of relatively inelastic demand always comes out as less than 1 and the demand curve is rapidly sloping for such type of demand. 

 

Recommended Read: Microeconomics vs Macroeconomics

 

 

5. Unitary Elastic Demand

 

When the proportionate change in the quantity demanded for a product is equal to the proportionate change in the price of the commodity, it is said to be unitary elastic demand. 

 

The numerical value for unitary elastic demand is equal to 1. The demand curve for unitary elastic demand is represented as a rectangular hyperbola. 


 

 

Conclusion

 

We can conclude the blog by stating the fact that the demand for a commodity is affected by several factors and the three main types of elasticity of demand explains the effect of those factors. 

 

To explain the extent of the effect of the economic variables on the quantity demanded, we have 5 other types of elasticity of demand which are perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic, relatively elastic, relatively inelastic, and unitary elastic.  

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    I Got a notification that my credit score has dropped so when I checked  it ,it went from a 760 down to 617 .I was totally stunned . Nothing has changed that i'm aware of ,all my bills are paid on time and not much card debt .I was so surprised how it is possible to drop so much and have no idea why .I saw an article that says thirty days late payments will stay on your reports for two years. I now remembered I had one late payment about four years ago. It was a sad experience for me and my lovely wife .we needed an immediate solution , that was when we came across some local  community  beneficiaries reviews of NEWHORIZONCREDIT1 ,then i contacted  them at (  NEWHORIZONCREDIT1ATGMAILdotCOM ) .I was so shocked when i received an email regarding changes on my credit report .I discovered all my negative tradelines  were off  and my credit score increased from 617 -785 within five working days .

  • nasiruprado

    May 03, 2022

    Bitcoin investment has changed my life because I invested my bitcoin with Mr Anderson Carl. He is a professional trader and he help me trade my bitcoin and he can also help you. My first investment with Anderson Carl, I profited up to $2,600 with my investment of $200 in 7 days, Looking into this week as well, what have you planned to achieve? Why not take that step now and contact Anderson Carl on whatsapp: +1(252)285-2093 Email:(andersoncarlassettrade@gmail.com)I advice you shouldn't hesitate He's great.

  • laylacole5560

    May 05, 2022

    Special thanks to HACK VANISH, a professional hacker I’ve been hiring for the past 2 years because, I find him to be an outstanding hacker who has aided me in various hacking related issues, ranging from fixing my poor FICO credit score of about 437 TransUnion, 462 Equifax to 802 plus excellent score, tracking my cheating husband’s phone and currently has helped me recover my lost crypto funds from an online scam investment I recently ventured into, I must confess he is the best, quite brilliant, ever since I discovered him through a positive review I saw on Wallet Hub and reached out to him via Email: HACKVANISH @ GMAIL. COM, and Phone: +1(747) 293-8514, to which he responded in less than 10mins, I have never regretted working with him, he’s been quite helpful and highly efficient. I Would recommend his services to anyone without hesitation.

  • BLANK ATM CARD

    May 09, 2022

    GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +18033921735 I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web Cyber hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich.(dwchzone@gmail.com) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 250,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. You can also contact them for the service below * Western Union/MoneyGram Transfer Hack * Bank Transfer Hack * PayPal / Skrill Transfer Hack * Crypto Mining Hack * CashApp Transfer Hack Email: dwchzone@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp: +18033921735 Visit: https://darkwebcycberhackers.com

  • Richard Wahl

    May 09, 2022

    I sincerely want to appreciate my friends and family who stood by me during my years of struggle till when my life turned around for better on March 30th 2018. My name is Richard Wahl of Sussex County and I hit the $533 million Mega Millions jackpot in March 2018. Today I sincerely want to share my success story of how I finally emerged to be the winner of a whopping sum of $533 million. Most people may say i was lucky but i would say i worked and sacrificed for it to happen because i don't believe in luck. I have been playing the lottery for so many years now without good results. I was expecting to be a winner that day because I had contacted Dr. Ozigidon to help me with the winning numbers. I trusted him to help me with the winning numbers because I have heard a lot about his good work. He gave me the numbers and also assured me of a victory ticket. Actually when I look at my numbers I know it's weird, I wasn't surprised to see my numbers. That's why I say I do believe it's God's plan for me to contact Dr. Ozigidon. I went to my wife and said "Baby" we are going on vacation and retiring. Checkout my winning testimony with this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NejIUDafu3U and you can also search me out with my name. I sincerely appreciate Dr. Ozigidon. I'm giving out his email: drozigidonhenz.spell.net@gmail.com Call or Whats-app him via +234-905-4750-112. Contact him too.

  • evelyncoleman345

    May 10, 2022

    Rebuilding a good credit score can be very frustrating and usually takes up months or even years depending on how consistently you pay bills completely & on time. I used to be among these unfortunate categories until recently when I had this job interview. I was invited to attend by The Mosaic Company in Florida , and after a background-check by the company I was placed on hold because of my terrible credit report score .A 550 FICO score is considered very poor and generally won't get the best terms for loans and credit etc . Thanks to NEWHORIZONCREDIT1 who came to my rescue and performed their magic on my credit score report , now I can boast of a credit score of 790 . contact them at NEWHORIZONCREDIT1 AT gmail DOT com . Trust me they are reliable .

  • unitepeter

    May 13, 2022

    I am sure a lot of us are still unaware of the recent development of the Blank ATM card.. An ATM card that can change your financial status within few days. With this Blank ATM card, you can withdraw between $1,000-$5,000 daily from any ATM machine in the world. There is no risk of getting caught by any form of security if you followed the instructions properly. The Blank ATM card is also sophisticated due to the fact that the card has its own security making your transaction very safe and untraceable. For more info contact Mr Calvin Grayson via email: officialblankatmservice@gmail.com

  • blessingjovia8

    May 14, 2022

    I’m super excited! I just got rid off my hsv2 genital herpes respectively within just 13 days after following some super protocols and guard lines about herpes disease. Now! I'm finally free from the damn shit! Herpes. I can't just believe I'm totally cured at last! Wow! I'm filled with so much joy you can add him on WhatsApp +2348077875210 or contact him today on email at: (dradigba@gmail.com) visit he’s website at https://dradigba.wordpress.com/ to get more information from him thanks.

  • Alex Stephen

    May 15, 2022

    Get your ex husband/wife back Quickly & Permanently. My name is Shannon Mattingly from USA. My husband left me for another woman. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact...WhatsApp: +2348055361568 , Email: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , website:http://unityspelltemple.website2.me

  • averylindsey01

    May 16, 2022

    GREAT THANKS TO DR TRUE LOVE SPELL CASTER FOR HELPING ME WHEN I NEEDED HELP. I am so happy to testify about a great spell caster that helped me when all hope was lost for me to unite with my fiance that i love so much. Am from Chicago and my name is Avery Lindsey, I had a fairy tale kinda love story and everyone around me call me the lucky one for having such a sweet love life but even the best love story can still go sour, before things went south I tried my best to make things work with everything that I can think of but thing still keeps going south. breakup is a bitch and dealing with life was difficult and everyone see you like an object of pity. I desperately had to do something and that was when i was introduced to this spiritual home, I was told once that if you need it bad enough you will go for it. i came across many spell casters but they promised and nothing came up but an African friend who was my neighbor introduced me to Dr TRUE LOVE and i emailed him with his email : Truelovespellcaster1@gmail.com and he replied me so kindly and help me get back my lovely relationship that was already gone for 4 months. At first his instructions sounded barbaric but I followed them and inexplicable results happened within 72hrs, Am so happy and all thanks to Dr TRUE LOVE SPELL CASTER for helping me with his white love powers. If you have any kind of problem email him now for help with Truelovespellcaster1@gmail.com

  • Jane Smith

    May 19, 2022

    I was told there is no Herpes Simplex Virus cure except treatment to control it. I totally lost hope, my life was embarrassing to have this Herpes Virus and the doctor said Herpes has no cure until I met Dr Kachi who helped me in my life. I have been infected with Herpes Virus since 2014, i went to many hospitals for a cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution that my body can be Okay, Until this faithful day as I was browsing on internet I saw testimony on how Dr Kachi helped people in curing Herpes Disease, quickly I copied his Email and ordered his herbal treatment, behold Before 2weeks i noticed the blisters were gone, I got 100% cured. Now I'm so excited to share this testimony to every article living with Herpes Virus there is possible natural treatment to eliminate this virus Email: drkachispellcast@gmail.com or WhatsApp number: +1 (570) 775-3362 Dr Kachi website: https://drkachispellcast.wixsite.com/my-site

  • shallymilly09

    May 19, 2022

    Love spell that work very fast: Check on Dr Sam Website and send a DM:: https://628109d82a3bd.site123.me/ My name is Shally Mills, I live in UK. My life is back!!! After 2 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids, I felt like ending it all. I came across several testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and also How to win lottery so on. It was very amazing, i also came across one particular testimony, it was about a woman called Renne, she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped his email. After reading all these, I decided to give it a try. In just 48hours, my husband came back to me. We resolved our issues, and we are even happier than ever. Dr.Sam you are a gifted man and I will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man. If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster, Try him anytime, he is the answer to your problems.  E-mail:: (Supremespellcast@gmail.com OR Supremespellcast@yahoo.com)  WhatApp Him/Call. +234 7061429303‬. Via big sit: ‬His Blog::  https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com/ Page: https://www.facebook.com/supremespellcast.12

  • garydavid072

    May 20, 2022

    My name is Gary David. I do not know how to thank GREAT DR SAM for bringing happiness back to my family. I really wanna tell the whole world that there is a spell caster called Dr. Sam is so real and genuine. I never believed in any of these things but when i lose my wife for 4 years, i required help until i found a great spell caster, and he assured me that I will get my wife back in just 24hours but i was in doubt, and after the spell has been cast, 24hours later, just as the spell caster said, my phone rang, and surprisingly it was my wife who has not called me for the past 4 years, and she made an apology for the pain she has caused me and she told me that she is ready to come back home for me. Dr. Sam really made her know how much I loved and needed her. And he also opened her eyes to picture how much love we have to share together. I will keep sharing this testimony all over the world. All thanks goes to Dr. Sam for the good work that he has done for me. Contact him now because he is very powerful and he will always help you. Believe him and do all he asks you to do and never doubt him in any way. E-mail:: Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or Supremespellcast@yahoo.com WhatApp Him/CALL +234 7061429303‬. Check on Dr Sam Website and send a DM:: https://628109d82a3bd.site123.me/ His Blog:: https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com/

  • garydavid072

    May 20, 2022

    My name is Gary David. I do not know how to thank GREAT DR SAM for bringing happiness back to my family. I really wanna tell the whole world that there is a spell caster called Dr. Sam is so real and genuine. I never believed in any of these things but when i lose my wife for 4 years, i required help until i found a great spell caster, and he assured me that I will get my wife back in just 24hours but i was in doubt, and after the spell has been cast, 24hours later, just as the spell caster said, my phone rang, and surprisingly it was my wife who has not called me for the past 4 years, and she made an apology for the pain she has caused me and she told me that she is ready to come back home for me. Dr. Sam really made her know how much I loved and needed her. And he also opened her eyes to picture how much love we have to share together. I will keep sharing this testimony all over the world. All thanks goes to Dr. Sam for the good work that he has done for me. Contact him now because he is very powerful and he will always help you. Believe him and do all he asks you to do and never doubt him in any way. E-mail:: Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or Supremespellcast@yahoo.com WhatApp Him/CALL +234 7061429303‬. Check on Dr Sam Website and send a DM:: https://628109d82a3bd.site123.me/ His Blog:: https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com/

  • vikkicounts1

    May 22, 2022

    Testimony By Vikki Counts, How to get your ex back fast! My husband was flirting with another woman. Until he vanished, I was desperate to get him back, I wasted so much time and money trying to get my Husband back, I tried almost all possibilities to have him back and nothing worked. I became lonely. To make it short, I found a spell caster Dr Sam. I saw the good testimonies about his wonderful work and after reading the Testimonials, I decided I had to try and give it one last try and After the spells, a miracle happened, my husband came home. It was awesome, anyone who needs help, should Email Him:: Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or WhatsApp Him/CALL +2347061429303‬. Website:: https://628109d82a3bd.site123.me/ PAGE. https://web.facebook.com/supremespellcast.12

  • Veronica Larry

    May 23, 2022

    I am Veronica Larry From New York.. i want to use this medium to testify how i got cured by Dr Kachi...I was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS disease, and i have been leaving with it since then, but i kept praying and doing everything possible to get cured, so i never stopped doing research about finding a cure...i came across testimonies about people getting cured through herbal medicine, and i have always believe in herbs and roots its medical preparing, after doing so many research about it i found Dr Kachi and i discovered he was a professional in herbs cured and he has also helped many people to got cured, i contacted Dr Kachi and talked on phone and i confirmed he was genuine herbalist, I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank been to God, I'm now here to testify and overwhelmed when the doctor confirmed me HIV negative in the same hospital i have been before, i wish to anyone that is sick today and want healing please email: drkachispellcast@gmail.com OR WhatsApp number: +1 (570) 775-3362 visit his Website, https://drkachispellcast.wixsite.com/my-site

  • Veronica Larry

    May 23, 2022

    I am Veronica Larry From New York.. i want to use this medium to testify how i got cured by Dr Kachi...I was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS disease, and i have been leaving with it since then, but i kept praying and doing everything possible to get cured, so i never stopped doing research about finding a cure...i came across testimonies about people getting cured through herbal medicine, and i have always believe in herbs and roots its medical preparing, after doing so many research about it i found Dr Kachi and i discovered he was a professional in herbs cured and he has also helped many people to got cured, i contacted Dr Kachi and talked on phone and i confirmed he was genuine herbalist, I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank been to God, I'm now here to testify and overwhelmed when the doctor confirmed me HIV negative in the same hospital i have been before, i wish to anyone that is sick today and want healing please email: drkachispellcast@gmail.com OR WhatsApp number: +1 (570) 775-3362 visit his Website, https://drkachispellcast.wixsite.com/my-site .

  • Alex Stephen

    May 23, 2022

    Get your ex husband/wife back Quickly & Permanently. My name is Shannon Mattingly from USA. My husband left me for another woman. The most painful thing is that I was pregnant with our second baby. I wanted him back. I did everything within my reach to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love I had for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back , I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster called dr unity, and he assured me there was no problem and that everything will be okay before 11 hours. He cast the spell and surprisingly 11 hours later my husband called me. I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. He also said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was how we started living together happily again.thanks to dr unity . if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now.. Here his contact...WhatsApp: +2348055361568 , Email: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , website:http://unityspelltemple.website2.me

  • shallymilly09

    May 23, 2022

    OMG!!! I am so proud and happy to be out here sharing your work with Dr. Sam. I just can’t believe that now my ex lover is really back to me on his knees presenting a ruby rose to beg me to take him back and he was feeling regretful and sorry for leaving me and for causing me pains after the divorce which occurred last year. And this whole miracle happened after I ordered an urgent 21hours Dr. Sam powerful spell which he cast on me and my husband. Sir, I am the happiest woman today in this whole wide world. Dr. Sam, you really did it..Yes.. It’s a miracle and an everlasting pleasure and cheerfulness for me and my family today.. I am so happy now and I don’t know how much to convey my thankfulness and appreciation to you sir. And to the whole world, contact him if you need urgent help now because it’s guaranteed that he will help you. Email Him:: Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or WhatsApp Him/CALL +2347061429303‬. Website:: https://628109d82a3bd.site123.me/ PAGE. https://web.facebook.com/supremespellcast.12 Do accept my gratitude sir.

  • joejessthwaite542

    May 23, 2022

    I love playing the Lottery and I buy tickets every 2 weeks after I get paid. I never wanted to get greedy but I did want enough to live more comfortably. Generally, my luck is pretty terrible to be honest. I took a chance when I found a website called [ amberlottotemple.com ] that offers spells to help people win the Lottery. It was the best 415 Pounds I have ever spent! I had to save up for a couple of weeks to be able to afford the spell. I had the spell targeted towards the National Lottery. DR Amber instructed me to buy the ticket after the 4th full moon and have faith that I would be the winner of the National Lottery. I kept my faith very strong just as DR Amber told me to do. The next morning I got up and saw an email from the National Lottery saying, "Good news, you've won a prize". Today my wife and I are proud winners of 184,262,899.10 Million Pounds and we are here to appreciate DR Amber for his good deeds. You can email him via : amberlottotemple@yahoo.com

  • joejessthwaite542

    May 23, 2022

    I love playing the Lottery and I buy tickets every 2 weeks after I get paid. I never wanted to get greedy but I did want enough to live more comfortably. Generally, my luck is pretty terrible to be honest. I took a chance when I found a website called [ amberlottotemple.com ] that offers spells to help people win the Lottery. It was the best 415 Pounds I have ever spent! I had to save up for a couple of weeks to be able to afford the spell. I had the spell targeted towards the National Lottery. DR Amber instructed me to buy the ticket after the 4th full moon and have faith that I would be the winner of the National Lottery. I kept my faith very strong just as DR Amber told me to do. The next morning I got up and saw an email from the National Lottery saying, "Good news, you've won a prize". Today my wife and I are proud winners of 184,262,899.10 Million Pounds and we are here to appreciate DR Amber for his good deeds. You can email him via : amberlottotemple@yahoo.com

  • joejessthwaite542

    May 23, 2022

    I love playing the Lottery and I buy tickets every 2 weeks after I get paid. I never wanted to get greedy but I did want enough to live more comfortably. Generally, my luck is pretty terrible to be honest. I took a chance when I found a website called [ amberlottotemple.com ] that offers spells to help people win the Lottery. It was the best 415 Pounds I have ever spent! I had to save up for a couple of weeks to be able to afford the spell. I had the spell targeted towards the National Lottery. DR Amber instructed me to buy the ticket after the 4th full moon and have faith that I would be the winner of the National Lottery. I kept my faith very strong just as DR Amber told me to do. The next morning I got up and saw an email from the National Lottery saying, "Good news, you've won a prize". Today my wife and I are proud winners of 184,262,899.10 Million Pounds and we are here to appreciate DR Amber for his good deeds. You can email him via : amberlottotemple@yahoo.com

  • joejessthwaite542

    May 23, 2022

    I love playing the Lottery and I buy tickets every 2 weeks after I get paid. I never wanted to get greedy but I did want enough to live more comfortably. Generally, my luck is pretty terrible to be honest. I took a chance when I found a website called [ amberlottotemple.com ] that offers spells to help people win the Lottery. It was the best 415 Pounds I have ever spent! I had to save up for a couple of weeks to be able to afford the spell. I had the spell targeted towards the National Lottery. DR Amber instructed me to buy the ticket after the 4th full moon and have faith that I would be the winner of the National Lottery. I kept my faith very strong just as DR Amber told me to do. The next morning I got up and saw an email from the National Lottery saying, "Good news, you've won a prize". Today my wife and I are proud winners of 184,262,899.10 Million Pounds and we are here to appreciate DR Amber for his good deeds. You can email him via : amberlottotemple@yahoo.com

  • Veronica Larry

    May 24, 2022

    I am Veronica Larry From New York.. i want to use this medium to testify how i got cured by Dr Kachi...I was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS disease, and i have been leaving with it since then, but i kept praying and doing everything possible to get cured, so i never stopped doing research about finding a cure...i came across testimonies about people getting cured through herbal medicine, and i have always believe in herbs and roots its medical preparing, after doing so many research about it i found Dr Kachi and i discovered he was a professional in herbs cured and he has also helped many people to got cured, i contacted Dr Kachi and talked on phone and i confirmed he was genuine herbalist, I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank been to God, I'm now here to testify and overwhelmed when the doctor confirmed me HIV negative in the same hospital i have been before, i wish to anyone that is sick today and want healing please email: drkachispellcast@gmail.com OR WhatsApp number: +1 (570) 775-3362 visit his Website, https://drkachispellcast.wixsite.com/my-site