An Overview of Descriptive Analysis

  • Ayush Singh Rawat
  • Mar 31, 2021
  • Statistics
An Overview of Descriptive Analysis title banner

Nowadays, Big Data and Data Science have become high volume keywords. They tend to become extensively researched and this makes this data to be processed and studied with scrutiny. One of the techniques to analyse this data is Descriptive Analysis.


This data needs to be analysed to provide great insights and influential trends that allows the next batch of content to be made in accordance to the general population’s liking or dis-liking.





The conversion of raw data into a form that will make it easy to understand & interpret, ie., rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to provide insightful information about the provided data.


Descriptive Analysis is the type of analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data points in a constructive way such that patterns might emerge that fulfill every condition of the data.


It is one of the most important steps for conducting statistical data analysis. It gives you a conclusion of the distribution of your data, helps you detect typos and outliers, and enables you to identify similarities among variables, thus making you ready for conducting further statistical analyses.   



Techniques for Descriptive Analysis


Data aggregation and data mining are two techniques used in descriptive analysis to churn out historical data. In Data aggregation, data is first collected and then sorted in order to make the datasets more manageable.


  1. Descriptive techniques often include constructing tables of quantiles and means, methods of dispersion such as variance or standard deviation, and cross-tabulations or "crosstabs" that can be used to carry out many disparate hypotheses. These hypotheses often highlight differences among subgroups.


  1. Measures like segregation, discrimination, and inequality are studied using specialised descriptive techniques. Discrimination is measured with the help of audit studies or decomposition methods. More segregation on the basis of type or inequality of outcomes need not be wholly good or bad in itself, but it is often considered a marker of unjust social processes; accurate measurement of the different steps across space and time is a prerequisite to understanding these processes.


  1. A table of means by subgroup is used to show important differences across subgroups, which mostly results in inference and conclusions being made. When we notice a gap in earnings, for example, we naturally tend to extrapolate reasons for those patterns complying. 


But this also enters the province of measuring impacts which requires the use of different techniques. Often, random variation causes difference in means, and statistical inference is required to determine whether observed differences could happen merely due to chance.


  1. A crosstab or two-way tabulation is supposed to show the proportions of components with unique values for each of two variables available, or cell proportions. For example, we might tabulate the proportion of the population that has a high school degree and also receives food or cash assistance, meaning a crosstab of education versus receipt of assistance is supposed to be made. 


Then we might also want to examine row proportions, or the fractions in each education group who receive food or cash assistance, perhaps seeing assistance levels dip extraordinarily at higher education levels.


Column proportions can also be examined, for the fraction of population with different levels of education, but this is the opposite from any causal effects. We might come across a surprisingly high number or proportion of recipients with a college education, but this might be a result of larger numbers of people being college graduates than people who have less than a high school degree.


(Must check: 4 Types of Data in Statistics)



Types of Descriptive Analysis


Descriptive analysis can be categorized into four types which are measures of frequency, central tendency, dispersion or variation, and position. These methods are optimal for a single variable at a time.

tPresenting different types of Descriptive analysis techniques, namely; Measures of frequency, central tendency, dispersion, and position, & contingency tables and scatter plots.

Different types of Descriptive Analysis

  1. Measures of Frequency


In descriptive analysis, it’s essential to know how frequently a certain event or response is likely to occur. This is the prime purpose of measures of frequency to make like a count or percent. 


For example, consider a survey where 500 participants are asked about their favourite IPL team. A list of 500 responses would be difficult to consume and accommodate, but the data can be made much more accessible by measuring how many times a certain IPL team was selected.



  1. Measures of Central Tendency


In descriptive analysis, it’s also important to find out the Central (or average) Tendency or response. Central tendency is measured with the use of three averages — mean, median, and mode. As an example, consider a survey in which the weight of 1,000 people is measured. In this case, the mean average would be an excellent descriptive metric to measure mid-values.



  1. Measures of Dispersion


Sometimes, it is important to know how data is divided across a range. To elaborate this, consider the average weight in a sample of two people. If both individuals are 60 kilos, the average weight will be 60 kg. However, if one individual is 50 kg and the other is 70 kg, the average weight is still 60 kg. Measures of dispersion like range or standard deviation can be employed to measure this kind of distribution.


  1. Measures of Position


Descriptive analysis also involves identifying the position of a single value or its response in relation to others. Measures like percentiles and quartiles become very useful in this area of expertise.


Apart from it, if you’ve collected data on multiple variables, you can use the Bivariate or Multivariate descriptive statistics to study whether there are relationships between them.


In bivariate analysis, you simultaneously study the frequency and variability of two different variables to see if they seem to have a pattern and vary together. You can also test and compare the central tendency of the two variables before carrying out further types of statistical analysis.


Multivariate analysis is the same as bivariate analysis but it is carried out for more than two variables. Following 2 methods are for bivariate analysis.


  1. Contingency table


In a contingency table, each cell represents the combination of the two variables. Naturally, an independent variable (e.g., gender) is listed along the vertical axis and a dependent one is tallied along the horizontal axis (e.g., activities). You need to read “across” the table to witness how the two variables i.e. independent and dependent variables relate to each other.




















A table showing a tally of different gender with number of activities

  1. Scatter plots


A scatter plot is a chart that enables you to see the relationship between two or three different variables. It’s a visual rendition of the strength of a relationship.


In a scatter plot, you are supposed to plot one variable along the x-axis and another one along the y-axis. Each data point is denoted by a point in the chart.

the photo is a scatter plot representation for the different hours of sleep a person needs to acquire by the different age in his lifespan

The scatter plot shows the hours of sleep needed per day by age,Source

(Recommend Blog: Introduction to Bayesian Statistics)



Advantages of Descriptive Analysis


  • High degree of objectivity and neutrality of the researchers are one of the main advantages of Descriptive Analysis. The reason why researchers need to be extra vigilant is because descriptive analysis shows different characteristics of the data extracted and if the data doesn’t match with the trends then it will lead to major dumping of data.


  • Descriptive analysis is considered to be more vast than other quantitative methods and provide a broader picture of an event or phenomenon. It can use any number of variables or even a single number of variables to conduct a descriptive research. 


  • This type of analysis is considered as a better method for collecting information that describes relationships as natural and exhibits the world as it exists. This reason makes this analysis very real and close to humanity as all the trends are made after research about the real-life behaviour of the data.


  • It is considered useful for identifying variables and new hypotheses which can be further analyzed through experimental and inferential studies. It is considered useful because the margin for error is very less as we are taking the trends straight from the data properties.


  • This type of study gives the researcher the flexibility to use both quantitative and qualitative data in order to discover the properties of the population.


For example, researchers can use both case study which is a qualitative analysis and correlation analysis to describe a phenomena in its own way. Using the case studies for describing people, events, institutions enables the researcher to understand the behavior and pattern of the concerned set to its maximum potential. 


  • In the case of surveys which consist of one of the main types of Descriptive Analysis, the researcher tends to gather data points from a relatively large number of samples unlike experimental studies that generally need smaller samples.


This is an out and out advantage of the survey method over other descriptive methods that it enables researchers to study larger groups of individuals with ease. If the surveys are properly administered, it gives a broader and neater description of the unit under research.


(Also check: Importance of Statistics for Data Science)


  • maamanina10

    Oct 18, 2021

    Money Rituals That Really Work +27735257866 in South Africa,USA,UK,Canada,Lesotho,Zambia,Zimbabwe,UAE,Kenya,Austria,Australia,Botswana,Malta,Brunei,France,Sweden,Denmark,Belgium,Hong Kong,Russia,Brazil,New Zealand,Switzerland,Swaziland,Norway,Netherlands,Lithuania,German,Chile,Argentina,Belarus,Poland,Korea,,DRC,Fiji,Italy,Spain,Wales,Bahamas,Taiwan,Indonesia,Singapore,Czech Republic,Serbia,Palau,Malaysia,Kuwait,South Korea,Algeria,Morocco,Tunisia,Libya,Sudan,China,Hong Kong,Myanmar... I have helped many powerful businessmen make big decisions that brought them large amounts of money by the use of powerful money spells. Money spells can create wealth, Money spells are safe and ethical to use if used for the right purposes. Money spells should not be used incorrectly or to create harm. I have much experience with potent money spells to being your business money. For more details contact maamarazaq on Email OR +27735257866

  • maamanina10

    Oct 18, 2021

    HOW TO GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK {{☎}}} +27735257866 in South Africa,UK,USA,Spain,Sweden,Canada,UAE,Malta,Brunei,Japan,Ireland,Turkey,Luxembourg,Iceland,Norway,Australia,Qatar,Croatia,Austria,Denmark,Netherlands,Romania,Belgium,Greece,Belarus,New Zealand,Switzerland,Cyprus,Poland,Estonia,Egypt,Fiji,Wales,Bahamas,Taiwan,Indonesia,Singapore,Czech Republic,Serbia,Palau,Lithuania,Malaysia,France,Bulgaria,German,Jordan,Chile,Algeria,Zambia,Zimbabwe,Botswana,Lesotho,Italy,Philippines,Honduras,Finland,Hungary,Mexico,Macedonia,Argentina,Syria,China,Hong Kong,Myanmar,Kuwait,South Korea,Morocco,Tunisia,Libya,Sudan,San Marino,Israel.. I just want to give quick advice to anyone out there that is having difficulty in his or her relationship to contact Maamarazaq because she is the only one that is capable of bringing back broken relationships or broken marriages within the time limit of 2days. She brought back my ex lover back to me and this is a sign of appreciation to her that I am grateful for her help in my life, home and marriage. You can contact maamarazaq on +27735257866 (Call/WhatsApp) OR

  • Antoine Fuqua

    Nov 03, 2021

    It gladdens my heart to know that I have someone to always run to no matter my situation in life. Lord Zakuza is a God in a human body that has never failed anyone for I am a living testifier of his good works. I've been separated from my woman for more than 2 years and I thought I've lost it all till I got referred to Lord Zakuza who helped me to regain my lost relationship with my woman within 48 hours. Lord Zakuza prepared a spell for me that brought back my woman and now we are reunited with much more love and happiness. Don't be sceptical about this because I've been through it and you might be the next lucky one to get your lover back forever within 48 hours. Whosoever you are and you need help, don't hesitate to get in touch with Lord Zakuza now via his website: ( ) or via WhatsApp on: +1 740 573 9483 or through his email via: and he also does lottery spells as well. Good luck to everyone reading this.

  • brendabernard102

    Nov 10, 2021

    I really want the world to know about this great man who brought back happiness into my life again after my husband left me and the kids 4 years ago for another women so i contacted Dr Olumide he cast a love spell for me within 48 hours my ex husband start calling me and begging for forgiveness for everything that have happened between us. I was so happy to have my family back together with love again email Dr Olumide @ a man with the great powers you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +1(747)-322-1094

  • evelinkay13

    Nov 15, 2021

    GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK NOW OR GET YOUR BROKEN RELATIONSHIP, MARRIAGE RESTORED. I’m just upset that I have been in pain and crying for so long and many times. Thank you I wished I would have found you earlier, you would have saved me from a lot of pain for the past five years my ex lover left me for another woman in just 2 days i contacted you Dr Omokpo you brought my broken relationship back I spent a small fortune enough to take my dream trip to South Carolina but what’s the point in taking a dream trip without the love of my life. Dr Omokpo has given me hope and his honesty is a breath of fresh air, I feel so good and heavy happiness in my heart to get my ex lover back. Who I thought he was gone forever. We are married now as I share my testimony with you. If you have broken relationship or broken marriage or you want to get your ex lover back kindly contact:

  • sekpeseudo

    Nov 18, 2021

    Are you seeking spiritual solution to solve your problems? Spiritual issues, Marriage Problems, Job problems, Relationship problems,pregnant problems, i am here to see you through, there is know problems without solution i am Dr sekpese udo contact me for any spiritual assistance. Whatsapp +1 (210) 436-6557

  • mj9511122

    Nov 18, 2021

    My Dear friends online, My name is susan And i live in USA, ohio, I have to give this miraculous testimony, which is so unbelievable until now. I had a problem with my Ex husband 2 years ago, which lead to our break up. I was not myself again, i felt so empty inside me, my love and financial situation became worst, until a close friend of mine told me about a spell caster who helped her in the same problem too his name is Doctor oboh. I email the spell caster and i told him my problem and i did what he asked of me, to cut the long story short. Before i knew what was happen, less than two days my husband gave me a call and told me that he was coming back to me i was so happy to have him back to me. The most interesting part of the story is that am pregnant. Thanks to Doctor oboh for saving my marriage and for also saving others own too. Continue your good work, If you are interested to contact the great spell caster email address: or contact him on whatsapp +2348089281017

  • mj9511122

    Nov 18, 2021

    , My name is susan And i live in USA, ohio, I have to give this miraculous testimony, which is so unbelievable until now. I had a problem with my Ex husband 2 years ago, which lead to our break up. I was not myself again, i felt so empty inside me, my love and financial situation became worst, until a close friend of mine told me about a spell caster who helped her in the same problem too his name is Doctor oboh. I email the spell caster and i told him my problem and i did what he asked of me, to cut the long story short. Before i knew what was happen, less than two days my husband gave me a call and told me that he was coming back to me i was so happy to have him back to me. The most interesting part of the story is that am pregnant. Thanks to Doctor oboh for saving my marriage and for also saving others own too. Continue your good work, If you are interested to contact the great spell caster email address: or contact him on whatsapp +2348089281017

  • Crystal haynes

    Dec 03, 2021

    My name is Crystal haynes. I am from Florida,USA. I want to thank Dr AKHIGBE for helping me to bring back my ex lover. I watched someone on YOUTUBE who testified about what he has done for her, bringing back her lost husband and helping her to win the America Lottery with his powerful spell. She gave out his email address and I contacted him instantly. He told me everything will be OKAY, and I am saying to everyone here that my heart desires is back to my life. Now we are getting married very soon. Thank you so much Dr AKHIGBE, may God continue to empower you to help people like us. You can contact him through his email address ( you can also call OR WhatsApp him on +2349021374574. My co-worker who also watched the testimonies video was helped by Dr AKHIGBE He helped him to win the American Powerball Jackpot worth $980,000.00usd. with his powerful spell he gave him the win numbers.May God continue to empower you more and more so you will never stop helping People to be happy again. Thanks Dr AKHIGBE.

  • willsoncare021

    Dec 03, 2021

    Hi, this is real testimony of a spell doctor who helped me bring back my finance, who left i and the kids for 9 month. i had lost all hope about my finance coming back home again. if you're going through a tough time in your marriage or relationship, or want back your Ex. contact him on email address: or WhatsApp him ‪+2349056460552‬

  • royjimmy62

    Dec 03, 2021

  • chantelemery35

    Dec 04, 2021

    A GREAT SPELL CASTER (DR.oluba ) THAT HELP ME BRING BACK MY EX.I want to quickly write about a Powerful Love spell Caster that helped me when I had a misunderstanding with my husband which led to Divorce. I contacted this Powerful spell caster called Dr oluba. help and I followed the step that he asked and within 24 hours my husband called me and was eager for my forgiveness and that he wished nothing more than to have me in his arms forever. I am filled with so much joy and happiness that I found Dr oluba. I hope you all here will find this testimony of mine and get your husband back in just 24 hours. He did a perfect job for me. I am So Happy and Excited because as i am writing this Testimony, My husband is madly in love with me again. If there is anybody Out there who is in Difficulties and need help should kindly Contact Dr oluba. on His Email or text him on WhatsApp: +1(518)293-0860

  • thomasyi442

    Dec 04, 2021

    I'm Thomas Yi from the United States. I started playing lottery games 3 years ago and I have never won big. I went online to seek help on how I can win big in my lottery games and I saw some nice reviews about Dr Amber who has made different people huge winners in their lottery games with his prayers. I gave it a try and I contacted Dr Amber who told me how and what to do before I can become a big lotto winner and I accepted. He made special prayers for me at his temple and gave me the required numbers to play the lotto game and when I played it, I won a massive $235.4 million POWERBALL jackpot. I was so happy and I chose to receive my winnings in a one-time, lump-sum payment of $160,038,447.27 at Florida Lottery Headquarters in Tallahassee and the balance was given to the store that I bought & played the game from. I would love other people to seek help from him and he can be contacted through WhatsApp/call/text via this number +1 (406) 646-2222 or email on: